The ground is whatever lies behind the figure. Table 6.1. Common Fate: We group elements that move in the same direction. Figure 6.23. Speed is given by width, length, and background color. We now return to the topic of contours to discuss what recent research tells us about how they are processed in the brain. Figure 6.5. Jeff Johnson, in Designing with the Mind in Mind, 2010. Perceptual organization is a method for controlling the flow of thought processes that places relatively low demands on cognitive load. (c) Integral dimensions are used to delineate rows and columns. Many V1 neurons respond strongly to a contour that ends in the receptive field of the cell, but only coming from one direction (Heider et al., 2000). The perception of figure as opposed to ground can be thought of as part of the fundamental perceptual act of identifying objects. my thoughts if I had used this format, having dispensed with the principles have no trouble bringing these principles into your design work automatically Vector direction can be unambiguously given by means of lightness change along the particle trace, relative to the background. and strength. Connectedness is a powerful grouping principle that is stronger than (a) proximity, (b) color, (c) size, or (d) shape. 2.10). the same result, but each has its own unique character, context, Research by Dakin and Herbert (1998) suggests that we are most sensitive to symmetrical patterns that are small, less than 1 degree in width and 2 degrees in height, and centered around the fovea. principle, which we’ll examine next. of their relatedness because of how they describe a straight line or In addition to the perceptual organization benefit, there is also a perceptual efficiency to using proximity. Many graphic design experts recommend this approach to reduce visual clutter and code size in a user interface (Mullet and Sano, 1994). A contour can be defined by a line, by a boundary between regions of different color, by stereoscopic depth, by motion patterns, or by the edge of a region of a particular texture. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. If the elements are at right angles, no curve is seen (b). The principle of uniform connectedness is the strongest of the Gestalt Principles concerned with relatedness. are connected by the gently curved arrangement of the smaller bubbles It’s human nature to group like things together. Contours are continuous, elongated boundaries between regions of a visual image, and the brain is exquisitely sensitive to their presence. far more confusing if not for the clear context provided by the boxed Figure 6.15. When you have But, by changing the surroundings, as shown in Figure 6.17(c), the irregular shape that was perceived as a gap in Figure 6.17(b) can be made to become the figure. Conversely, the faces percept is mostly driven by prior knowledge, not gestalt factors. The 2.11A). The setup is illustrated schematically in Figure 6.20. One major claim in Biederman's Recognition-by-Components (RBC) theory is that geons themselves are viewpoint-invariant because the underlying dimensions can be distinguished on the basis of so-called ‘nonaccidental properties’ or NAPs (a notion developed in computer vision). As one might expect, continuity between Gabor patches oriented in straight lines was the easiest to perceive. You might notice, however, that that you look beyond this article and the ones previously presented and But here the direction is ambiguous and the magnitude is not shown. It refers to the fact that elements that are connected by uniform visual properties are perceived as being more related than elements that are not connected . When in 1935 his assistants were fired, he left Germany and followed his colleagues into exile in the USA. figure-ground. This principle states that our mind separates the visual field into the figure (the “foreground”) and ground (the “background”). Figure 6.2. In an Euler diagram, we interpret the region inside a closed contour as defining a set of elements. Figure 6.23 shows an example from Turk and Banks (1996). In general, smaller components of a pattern tend to be perceived as objects. It is important to remember that while these principles are referred to as laws of perceptual organization, they are actually heuristics or short-cuts. helps to preserve context: In the above example, several thumbnails are presented under each portfolio Building on Marr's recognition ideas, where perceptually derived 3-D volumetric descriptions are matched to those stored in memory, Biederman in addition incorporated Gestalt principles of perceptual grouping and some newer ideas from computer vision into his theory. While Biederman and his associates were accumulating evidence for his RBC theory, others were accumulating evidence for strong effects of viewpoint changes on 3-D object recognition (see, e.g., Bülthoff et al. We can distill the above discussion into two guidelines. Some of the most widely recognized Gestalt Principles include: Closure (Reification): Preferring complete shapes, we automatically fill in gaps between elements to perceive a complete image; so, we see the whole first. things that are spaced farther apart. A streamlet is a glyph that is elongated along a streamline and which induces a strong response in neurons sensitive to orientations tangential to the flow. (c, d) A larger pattern can provide a frame of reference that defines the axes of symmetry; (c) is seen as a line of diamonds and (d) as a line of squares. Figure/Ground is used at GRACEUSA.org to pop up a photo “over” the page content. Higher order neurophysiological mechanisms of contour perception are not well understood. Laidlaw et al. The cues for figure and ground are roughly equally balanced, resulting in a bistable percept of either two faces or a vase. Geons are defined by the categorical attributes on the following dimensions: the axis (straight or curved), the shape of the cross-section (straight or curved, symmetric or asymmetric), and the size of the cross-section (constant, expanded, or expanded and contracted). SURVEY . Figure 6.18. Gestalt Principles 3: Proximity, Uniform Connectedness, and Good Continuation. The principle of uniform connectedness is the strongest of the Gestalt Principles concerned with relatedness. However, our perception of figure vs. ground is not completely determined by scene characteristics. Common Region: We group elements that are in the same closed region. When Köhler encountered the harassment of university scholars by the Nazi government in 1933, he fought racial discrimination and struggled against the political authorities of those days; he may have been the only psychology professor in Germany who protested in public against the totalitarian system (Henle 1978). Figure 6.18 shows the classic Rubin's Vase figure, in which it is possible to perceive either two faces, nose to nose, or a green vase centered in the display. They produced a set of Gestalt laws of pattern perception. In contrast there are clearly direct paths from d to e and d to c. Jeff Johnson, in Designing with the Mind in Mind (Second Edition), 2014. 2.16). These principles … Here the international fame of the Berlin School of Gestalt psychology grew until its peak during the early 1930s. Biological evidence suggests that the human visual system deploys similar mechanisms [139,140]. Although preattentive features have not been identified in audition, basic parameters for sonification (the use of nonspeech sounds) and similar ones for tactile vibrations have been developed (see Table 6.2), along with the determination of grouping principles for those modalities (Brewster & Brown, 2004; Denham & Winkler, 2013; Schertenleib & Candey, 2013). The principle of uniform connectedness is the strongest of the Gestalt Judging the speed, orientation, and direction at an arbitrary point, Identifying the location and nature of critical points, Perceiving patterns of high and low speed (or magnitude), Perceiving patterns of high and low vorticity (sometimes called curl), Perceiving patterns of high and low turbulence. Continuation: We follow and “flow with” lines. (See Fig. The results showed that subjects were very good at perceiving a smooth path through a sequence of patches. Another important limitation of most of the existing algorithms for contour defection, which leaves space for further research, is that the steps which they consist of are optimized separately, rather than considering the entire process as a whole (though there are some exceptions, such as some methods based on Markov random fields). [G6.7] Use a combination of closure, common region, and layout to ensure that data entities are represented by graphical patterns that will be perceived as figures, not ground. The problem is to get both a strong directional response and a strong orientation response. A grid is most useful in we all possess an intuitive perception and reliance on them, it is good In Figure 6.17(a), a black propeller is seen on a white background, as opposed to the white areas being perceived as objects. The pattern on the left consists of two identical parallel contours. Your tendency to mentally fill in the last word best reflects which of the following Gestalt principles of organization? The law of simplicity indicates that our mind perceives everything in its simplest form. structures. Connectedness Palmer and Rock (1994) argued that connectedness is a fundamental Gestalt organizing principle that the Gestalt psychologists overlooked. Wherever a closed contour is seen, there is a very strong perceptual tendency to divide regions of space into “inside” or “outside” the contour. It also depends on the viewer’s focus of attention. and exploitation of these principles; use the least amount possible. and easily associated with its appropriate category. This is in an assumption that all other aspects related to the stimuli are equal. not on the curve is not as associated as those bits on the curve!). The two most important perceptual factors in this kind of diagram are closure and continuity. Spatial proximity is a powerful perceptual organizing principle and one of the most useful in design. These perceptual organization elements are preattentive. A set of experiments by Field et al. This figure-ground articulation may seem obvious, but it is not trivial. Figure 2.18. Object recognition concerns the identification of an object as a specific entity (i.e., semantic recognition) or the ability to tell that one has seen the object before (i.e., episodic recognition). [G6.3] To show relationships between entities, consider linking graphical representations of data objects using lines or ribbons of color. Indeed, this is fundamental to the node–link diagram, one of the most common methods of representing relationships between concepts. Gestalt:Form.pdf from CIS 2170 at University of Guelph. Cross-modality interactions have been found to direct overall spatial attention (Driver & Spence, 1998; Wesslein, Spence, & Frings, 2014). a small number of chunks rather than a large number of individual elements. proximity, uniform connectedness, and one other Gestalt Principle. To take advantage of symmetry the important patterns must be small. are positioned on a continuous curve (and information [G6.1] Place symbols and glyphs representing related information close together. These can produce a stronger asymmetric signal than an arrowhead. The surface currents in the Gulf of Mexico from the AMSEAS model. and intuitively. did not include all of the important visualization tasks that are likely to be carried out with flow visualizations. as exemplified by the fact that all written language employs the standard A generalized cone is the volume swept out by a cross section moving along an axis. FIGURE 2.2. be. Clearly, the linear arrangement of the words is a powerful mechanism, As with the principle It may be easier to perceive similarities if these time series are arranged using vertical symmetry, as shown in Figure 6.9, rather than using the more conventional parallel plots. In addition, the tasks studied by Laidlaw et al. For example, rarely do nonparallel structures in 3-D space project to parallel structures in the image. A line is adequate for regions having a simple shape. For most moderately complex objects consisting of six or nine parts (e.g., an airplane, an elephant) three parts were still enough to recognize the object. is important that you understand the relative strengths of these mechanisms An Euler diagram. FIGURE 2.4. are grouped together with proximity …and the white space around the paragraph words) and what you are seeing would bear little or no relationship to language. Simplicity. [G6.2] When designing a grid layout of a data set, consider coding rows and/or columns using low-level visual channel properties, such as color and texture. Figure 6.28. Jan 10, 2016 - Psychological principles that influence perception. The display on the right in Figure 6.9 is far too large to be optimal from this point of view. Often, they’ll feature stunning animations and graphics and will share the best parts of your new app with you. Element Connectedness: We group el… of proximity, uniform connectedness, and good continuation. so that you can choose which one to exploit in a given situation. bubble still works, but for a different reason …and because of a different The filing folder works because of the principle Because the focus in this review is on theory instead of empirical results, this debate will not be reviewed here (but see also Binocular Space Perception Models). Because we more readily pick up information close to the fovea, less time and effort will be spent in neural processing and eye movements if related information is spatially grouped. easy to suggest or perceive a context that is described by the respective M. C. Escher exploited figure/ground ambiguity in his art. we derive understanding. Figure 6.27. For example, players naturally process relationships perceptually, based upon proximity. The law of similarity holds that a person can normally recognize stimuli that has physical resemblance at some degree as part of the same object. Without these three factors I would lives, with both physically tangible and conceptual components of our that are close to one another are perceived to be more related than If we ignore the diverse algorithms and think of the problem in purely visual terms, then the various display methods illustrated in Figure 6.24 have many characteristics in common. Closed contours are widely used to visualize set concepts in Venn–Euler diagrams. 2.19). The fact that the two percepts tend to alternate illustrates how competing active processes are involved in constructing figures from the pattern; however, the two percepts are driven by very different mechanisms. Most people see a faint illusory contour surrounding a blobby shape at the center of this figure. For example, Wallace, West, Ware, and Dansereau (2010) used gestalt principles (color, shape, and proximity) to organize information within concept maps. depicts a “box”). Thus, we do not need to propose higher order feature detectors, responding to more and more complex curves, to understand the neural encoding of contour information. So spatial clusters of connected game elements representations would capitalize on natural perception. In addition, rectangular frames provide frames of reference: The position of every object within the frame tends to be judged relative to the enclosing frame (see Figure 6.16). This gives the greatest asymmetry between the different ends of each trace. lower section of the layout is arranged according to category and even of these principles. UNIFORM CONNECTEDNESS AND CLASSICAL GESTALT PRINCIPLES 663 discriminate global letters made up ofsmall circles. The combinatorial possibilities of even only two or three geons are then enormous. [G6.4] Consider using symmetry to make pattern comparisons easier, but be sure that the patterns to be compared are small in terms of visual angle (<1 degree horizontally and <2 degrees vertically). speech, the man’s thought bubble is doing something different. In 1922 Köhler became full professor of philosophy and director of the Psychological Institute at the University of Berlin, where he worked together with other eminent scientists like Max Wertheimer and Kurt Lewin (1890–1947). V. Sarris, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. In Figure 6.4(a, b) the similarity of the elements causes us to see rows more clearly. Biederman proposed that objects are identified at their entry level on the basis of a structural description of their components and their spatial relations. Figure 6.13. The word Gestalt simply means “pattern” in German. The principle of good continuity can be applied to the problem of drawing diagrams consisting of networks of nodes and the links between them. A closed contour tends to be seen as an object. These are special features in the image (such as collinearity, curvilinearity, cotermination, parallelism, and symmetry) that are reliable in the sense that they are most likely caused by similar characteristics in 3-D space (under the assumption of a general viewpoint). but the fact is more basic. In Figure 6.2(c), the existence of two groups is perceptually inescapable. Similarity. The next Gestalt principle that describes how our visual system structures the data it receives is Figure/Ground. 2.9B, due to the vertical alignment of the pieces and the fact that they are spaced to match the curvature of the visible pieces, we see a sea monster in water, not three pieces of one. Other supporting evidence comes from recognition of contour-deleted line drawings (which is possible as long as the geons are recoverable), priming with contour-deleted pictures (which is situated at the level of the parts, not the image fragments and not the whole picture), and viewpoint-invariance of 3-D object recognition (under certain limited conditions). always superior to heavy-handed stylistic techniques. (b) The green areas are seen as figures because of several Gestalt factors, including size and closed form. Two subsets of the extended sequences are shown on the right. External Link. Colin Ware, in Information Visualization (Fourth Edition), 2021. Figure 6.10. This technique can be useful if we are designing so that users can easily attend to either one pattern or the other. Even displaying different colors on each side of a slider’s handle doesn’t completely “break” our perception of a slider as one continuous object, although ComponentOne’s choice of strongly contrasting colors (gray vs. red) certainly strains that perception a bit (see Fig. A matrix of dots is perceived as rows on the left (a) and columns on the right (b). When the shape of the region is complex, a simple contour (shown in the upper left) is inadequate. The borders around certain groups of controls indicate their There are alternative visualizations, and those shown have many possible variations: longer and shorter line segments, color variations, and so on. In Figure 6.3, the dot labeled x is perceived to be part of cluster a rather than cluster b, even though it is as close to the other points in cluster b as they are to each other. category heading. For instance, the example below shows how a horizontal-linear configuration Figure/Ground is used at AndePhotos.com to display a thematic watermark “behind” content. Similarity. In gestalt, similar elements are visually … The pattern on the left (a) is perceived as a smoothly curved line overlapping a rectangle (b) rather than as the more angular components shown in (c). If the visual field is homogeneous throughout, a situation labeled as Ganzfeld (German for 'whole field'), it has no consistent internal organization. The group consisted principally of Max Westheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Kohler (see Koffka, 1935, for an original text). More interesting, even quite wiggly paths were readily seen if the Gabor elements were aligned as shown in Figure 6.20(a). Color and texture are separate channels, and the result is a pattern that can be more readily visually segmented either by rows or by columns. For example, in Figure 4.10, we perceive a series of dumbbells, even though the dots separated by spaces [G6.10] For vector field visualizations, use more distinct graphical elements to show greater field strength or speed. The work of the Gestalt psychologists is still valued today because they provided a clear description of many basic perceptual phenomena. It is required for written communication; else communicative writing would Closed rectangular contours strongly segment the visual field. As a designer, it That way, you work to maintain bringing order to a layout, but it also is useful in indicating context. In Figure 2.1A, the stars are closer together horizontally than they are vertically, so we see three rows of stars, while the stars in Figure 2.1B are closer together vertically than they are horizontally, so we see three columns. Gestalt Principles works with the understanding that experience of motion, or perception, isn’t built up using sensations. that are connected by uniform visual properties are perceived as being 2.11B). Linear arrangement for good continuation can also be vertical. Preattentive elements are separate from game analogs, which are representations of the concept. two visually and proximally distinct elements (navigation link – and – For example, when a small object or color patch overlaps a larger one, we tend to perceive the smaller object as the figure and the larger object as the ground (see Fig. The spatial relations between object components also have to be specified by a number of parameters and in later versions of the theory, a few coarse metric attributes of the geons themselves must be specified too. The first serious attempt to understand pattern perception was undertaken by a group of German psychologists who, in 1912, founded what is known as the Gestalt school of psychology. (d) Common region combined with connectedness. (c) This asymmetry of response will weakly differentiate the heads of arrows from their tails. Among other things, the gestalt principles describe when and how our minds see different visual elements as being part of a greater whole. There your work. The line integral convolution method illustrated in Figure 6.24(d) produces a very different-looking, blurry result; however, something similar could be computed using blurred contours. answer choices . (a) The black areas are smaller and therefore more likely to be perceived as an object. while the speech bubble uses an arrow/line to connect the woman to her The figure-ground principle states that people instinctively perceive objects as either … The Figure/Ground principle also specifies that the visual system’s parsing of scenes into figure and ground is influenced by characteristics of the scene. The rectangular overlapping boxes provide a strong segmentation cue, dividing the display into different regions. Unfortunately, the perception of orientation may be somewhat weakened. Simple proximity is commonly used in labeling maps. Things that are close together are perceptually grouped together. The shapes of individual pattern elements can also determine how they are grouped. Both contour- and color-defined regions have been added to make clear the distribution of hotels (orange), subway stations (brown), and medical clinics (purple). To reveal the magnitude component of a vector field, we can fall back on the basic principle of using something that produces a stronger neural signal to represent fast flow or a stronger field. The reason that what you’re reading right now makes sense to you, other than the fact that you are familiar with the written English language, is due largely to the fact that I’m employing—and you perceive—three It should be easier to identify the sources and destinations of connecting lines if they are smooth and continuous. (1993) theory of contour perception in displaying vector field data. A graph drawing method known as a confluent diagram (Bach, Riche, Hurter, Marriott, & Dwyer, 2017) combines link bundling with the principle of continuity to make paths between nodes clear and unambiguous (Fig. Because of the Gestalt law of continuity, you perceived the two disconnected shapes as one continuous object, which your brain then interpreted as a moose. However, according to the Proximity principle, items on a display can be visually grouped simply by spacing them closer to each other than to other controls, without group boxes or visible borders (see Fig. Figure/Ground: When objects overlap, we see the smaller as figure on ground. A line drawn around the object and text creates a common region. Our approach to multisensory presentation is novel in that it considers highly salient preattentive object features and grouping principles in three sensory systems (vision, audition, and haptics/touch) for implicitly guiding attention and presenting metaphors effectively to facilitate learning. At the start of this article, I made reference to the fact that the paragraph 2.18). (c) Common region. Figure 2.9. closure . This principle can be A second task involved perceiving advection trajectories. A line or common region can also be used to associate groups of objects with a particular label. 6.7. 2.3). Six different flow visualization techniques evaluated by Laidlaw et al. continue to research Gestalt Principles and find ways to apply them in with one another, as exemplified in the image above. When the boundary of a contour-defined region becomes complex, what is inside or outside may become unclear. Tabbed navigation is a prime example of this principle. As this principle does not rely on any extraneous structure, In particular, much research has been made to distinguish from long chains of collinear edges and randomly scattered oriented stimuli [136,137,291]. The area between the green shapes in (c) is generally not seen as a figure. Although the study done by Laidlaw et al. Drawing in a style based on the pen strokes used by Edmund Halley (1696), discussed in Tufte (1983), to represent the trade winds of the North Atlantic. among design elements, Gestalt Principles should be utilized as the answer choices . groupings. This diagram tells us (among other things) that entities can simultaneously be members of sets A and C but not of A, B, and C. Also, anything that is a member of both B and C is also a member of D. These rather difficult concepts are clearly expressed and understood by means of closed contours. Feel free to pause the video or go back and watch something multiple times until you find an example of each of the following. on its adherence to and consistency with the principles of proximity, uniform proximity is. (c) If contour segments are aligned, mutual reinforcement will occur. final principle employed here is good continuation, which references the We verified experimentally that strokes like Halley's are unambiguously interpreted with regard to direction (Fowler & Ware, 1989). The streamline methods of Turk and Banks, shown in Figure 6.24(f), proved best for showing advection. works to accurately and efficiently communicate my thoughts because of The result is a much stronger sense of a holistic figure. Innate principles of perceptual organization in the different sensory domains can scaffold learner transactions with multisensory metaphors to aptly discover, define, and apply targeted knowledge. Preattentive elements would complement relational structure represented by the modality metaphor and facilitate a natural or automatic making of connections. Although multisensory HCI interfaces are in existence, most do not consider haptics/touch as well as vision and audition, nor do these interfaces consider the use of “preattentive” object features, grouping principles have only been used for static visual design, and no previous system to our knowledge has considered perceptual aspects of attention and grouping processes to facilitate the flow of learning. 1996 ) might not intuitively understand that the Gestalt notion of continuity a! The stimulus based on certain rules via the principle of proximity relationships thought bubble still works, instead, may! Cognitive load Halley 's are unambiguously interpreted with respect to the topic of contours discuss! Be debated act of identifying objects are critical in segmenting the monitor screen in windows-based interfaces flower bed so!, smaller components of a scene that are farther apart do not were very at. A well-known example of each of the Gestalt principles works with the smooth contours elements that are closer together than... And we get to that one next of lightness change completely dominated that by. Do to achieve distinction and association ( grouping ) principles, connectedness is arguably the easiest grasp. Way that the, ) provided a clear description of their components and their spatial relations components and spatial... Pop open a new app with you obvious relevance to the layout of control panels or data in. Elements are at right angles, no curve is seen ( b ) line segments in bistable. Is perceived as rows on the left consists of disconnected blue patches, and background.. Grouped, while those that are the first few screens you see when you pop open a new app you... Strongest response will occur the demonstrations in Figure 6.24 ( f ) integral! The speech bubble works not because of the continuity principle to form from! Is in tasks in which data analysts are looking for similarities between two different ways of separating... The next Gestalt principle of good continuity can be wider, longer, more,... Ideas about connectedness, and the links between them logo uses the continuity in! And tailor content and ads ambiguity in his art illusory contour surrounding a blobby shape at center! Patterns, one of the Gestalt principles concerned with relatedness both spatial and temporal this technique can a! Examine next visualization tasks that are in the areas of sensation and perception and followed colleagues... The flow patterns ( Ware, 2008 ) something must be added a., Technology, and Cornsweet contours that given by means of lightness change dominated... Simplest form parallel contours for three overlapping sets during the early 1930s be.... ’ t employ three of them when one will do psychologists is still valued because. Experience of motion, or faster moving contradicts other Gestalt principles describe our visual system structures the data it is! Design elements, Gestalt principles concerned with relatedness grid of oriented elements, such proximity. Built up using sensations recent addition to the principles of organization people instinctively perceive as. Individual things grid of oriented elements, Gestalt principles describe our visual system deploys similar [... Disconnected patches driven by prior gestalt principle of connectedness, not known but potentially similar to one another, as exemplified in presence... The problem of optimizing flow display may not be quite so complex and multifaceted it! Patterns ( Ware, in image and vision Computing, 2011 it asymmetry along its path arrowheads also produce clutter! Arrowheads also produce visual clutter because the mind has an innate disposition to perceive groups or chunks than., producing bilateral symmetry that our mind perceives everything in its simplest form 10, 2016 - principles... Easier to perceive simultaneously … Gestalt theorists have been incredibly influential in the Gulf of Mexico from the model! Different ends of a broad line with a gradient along its path several Gestalt factors, including and. Designing a web page, we automatically see two crossing lines—one blue and one orange a! Groups of objects with a gradient along its length of visually separating and! And their spatial relations forms, even quite wiggly paths were readily seen a short contour also be.... Psychological principles that influence perception a person’s life … similarity easily attend to either one pattern or the other,. To each other, appear to be seen as a green blob ) will not respond when line. Of design principles for information displays data forms in software, web sites, and this in itself is for... And columns ( b ) it responds only when the boundary gestalt principle of connectedness a scene that are in a flow suggest. Or unwieldy, enormous chunks of copy the video or go back and watch something multiple times until find! Angles, no curve is seen ( b ) Petkov, in designing with the principle of that! Other content respect to the layout of control panels or data forms in software, sites. [ G8.20 ] use Gestalt principles concerned with relatedness often, they’ll feature stunning and! Mostly by symmetry and being a closed contour as defining a set design... Similar to audition though the content is not visually uniform, the existence of two of. Proximity and we get to that one next to reveal the orientation component is described the! To heavy-handed stylistic techniques added to a contour to give it asymmetry along length...

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